streptococcus n : spherical gram-positive bacteria occurring in pairs or chains; cause e.g. scarlet fever and tonsillitis [syn: streptococci, strep] [also: streptococci (pl)]
EtymologyThey grow in chains or pairs, thus the name — from Greek στρεπτός, meaning easily bent or twisted, like a chain.
Nounstreptococcus (plural: streptococci)
Streptococcus is a genus of spherical Gram-positive bacteria, belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and the lactic acid bacteria group. Cellular division occurs along a single axis in these bacteria, and thus they grow in chains or pairs, hence the name — from Greek streptos, meaning easily bent or twisted, like a chain. Contrast this with staphylococci, which divide along multiple axes and generate grape-like clusters of cells.
PathogenesisIn addition to strep throat, certain Streptococcus species are responsible for many cases of meningitis, bacterial pneumonia, endocarditis, erysipelas and necrotizing fasciitis (the 'flesh-eating' bacterial infections). However, many streptococcal species are non-pathogenic. Streptococci are also part of the normal commensal flora of the mouth, skin, intestine, and upper respiratory tract of humans.
As a rule, individual species of Streptococcus are classified based on their hemolytic properties (breakdown of red blood cells in a laboratory). Alpha hemolysis is caused by a reduction of iron in hemoglobin, giving it a greenish color on blood agar. Beta-only hemolysis is complete rupture of red blood cells, giving distinct, wide, clear areas around bacterial colonies on blood agar. Other streptococci are labeled as gamma hemolytic, actually a misnomer, as no hemolysis takes place.
Beta-hemolytic streptococci are further characterised via the Lancefield serotyping - based on specific carbohydrates in the bacterial cell wall. These are named Lancefield groups A to T, although some species, such as S. pneumoniae, do not express Lancefield antigens. See the related article on Rebecca Lancefield. In the medical setting, the most important groups are the alpha-hemolytic streptococci, S. pneumoniae and Streptococcus Viridans-group, and the beta-hemolytic streptococci of Lancefield groups A and B (also known as “Group A Strep” and “Group B Strep”).
Viridans and Others
Group AS. pyogenes (also known as GAS) is the causative agent in Group A streptococcal infections, (GAS) including streptococcal pharyngitis ("strep throat"), acute rheumatic fever, scarlet fever, acute glomerulonephritis and necrotizing fasciitis. If strep throat is not treated, it can develop into rheumatic fever, a disease that affects the joints and heart valves. Other Streptococcus species may also possess the Group A antigen, but human infections by non-S. pyogenes GAS strains (some S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and S. anginosus Group strains) appear to be uncommon.
Group A Strep infection is generally diagnosed with a Rapid Strep Test or by culture.
Group BS. agalactiae, or GBS, causes pneumonia and meningitis in neonates and the elderly, with occasional systemic bacteremia. They can also colonize the intestines and the female reproductive tract, increasing the risk for premature rupture of membranes and transmission to the infant. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Academy of Pediatrics and the Centers for Disease Control recommend all pregnant women between 35 and 37 weeks gestation should be tested for GBS. Women who test positive should be given prophylactic antibiotics during labor, which will usually prevent transmission to the infant. In the UK, clinicians have been slow to implement the same standards as the US, Australia and Canada. In the UK, only 1% of maternity units test for the presence of Group B Strep. Although The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists issued risk-based guidelines in 2003 (due for review 2006), the implentation of these guidelines has been patchy. Some groups feel that as a result over 75 infants in the UK die each year of GBS related disease and another 600 or so suffer serious infection, most of which could be prevented however this is yet to be substantiated by RCT in the UK setting and, given the evidence for the efficacy of testing and treating from other countries, it may be that the large-scale trial necessary would receive neither funding nor ethics approval.
Group CIncludes S. equi, which causes strangles in horses, and S. zooepidemicus, which causes infections in several species of mammals including cattle and horses. This can also cause death in chickens and moose. Many mountaineers from Canada have found corpses of moose lying in the middle of the road; post-mortem tests have found group c streptococcus in their blood.
Group D (Enterococci) *variable in hemolysisMany former Group D streptococci have been reclassified and placed in the genus Enterococcus (includes S. faecalis, S. faciem, S. durans, and S. avium). For example, Streptococcus faecalis is now Enterococcus faecalis.
The remaining non-enterococcal Group D strains include Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus equinus.
Non-hemolytic streptococci rarely cause disease. However, weakly hemolytic group D beta-hemolytic streptococci and Listeria monocytogenes should not be confused with non-hemolytic streptococci.
- Prevention of Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease August 16, 2002 MMWR 2000;49:228-232.
- The Canadian Strep B Foundation
- The UK Group B Strep Support charity
streptococcus in Catalan: Estreptococ
streptococcus in Czech: Streptokok
streptococcus in Danish: Streptokok
streptococcus in German: Streptokokken
streptococcus in Modern Greek (1453-): Στρεπτόκοκκος
streptococcus in Spanish: Streptococcus
streptococcus in Basque: Streptococcus
streptococcus in French: Streptocoque
streptococcus in Icelandic: Streptókokkar
streptococcus in Italian: Streptococcus
streptococcus in Hebrew: Streptococcus
streptococcus in Lithuanian: Streptokokai
streptococcus in Dutch: Streptokokken
streptococcus in Japanese: レンサ球菌
streptococcus in Norwegian: Streptokokker
streptococcus in Polish: Paciorkowce
streptococcus in Portuguese: Streptococcus
streptococcus in Russian: Стрептококк
streptococcus in Serbian: Стрептококе
streptococcus in Finnish: Streptococcus
streptococcus in Swedish: Streptokocker
streptococcus in Turkish: Streptokok
streptococcus in Ukrainian: Стрептокок
streptococcus in Chinese: 鏈球菌屬
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